What are the Studies Telling Us?

The following studies indicate biological effects at exposure levels far below what would be explained by “thermal effects”, and well within the range people are commonly exposed to every day.

NOTE: Most of these exposures lie FAR BELOW the current advisory exposure standards in the US.

Studies by Increasing Power Density

Power Density Reported Biological Effects References
0.1 µW/cm2
(0.001 W/Kg SAR)
EEG brain waves are altered when exposed to cell phone signal Von Klitzing, 1995
0.16 µW/cm2 Motor function, memory and attention of school children affected (Latvia) Kolodynski, 1996
0.168 – 1.053 µW/cm2 Irreversible infertility in mice after 5 generations of exposure to cell phone signals from antenna park Magras & Xenos, 1997
0.2 – 8 µW/cm2 Two-fold increase in childhood leukemia from AM-FM exposure Hocking, 1996
1.3 – 5.7 µW/cm2 Two-fold increase in leukemia in adults from AM RF exposure Dolk, 1997
2.4 µW/cm2 Interference with medical devices at least up to 1000 MHz Joyner, 1996
2 – 4 µW/cm2 Direct effect of RFR on ion channels in cells/opening of acetycholine channels D’Inzeo, 1988
4 – 10 µW/cm2 Visual reaction time in children is slowed//lower memory function in tests Chiang, 1989
5 – 10 µW/cm2 Impaired nervous system activity Dumanski, 1974
10 µW/cm2 Significant differences in visual reaction time and reduced memory function Chiang, 1989
10 – 25 µW/cm2 Changes in the hippocampus of the brain Belokrinitskiy, 1982
30 µW/cm2
(0.015 W/Kg SAR)
Immune system effects – elevation of PFC count (antibody producing cells) Veyret, 1991
50 µW/cm2 An 18% reduction in REM sleep (important to memory and learning functions) Mann, 1996
100 µW/cm2 Changes in immune system function Elekes, 1996
100 µW/cm2 A 26% drop in insulin Navakatikian, 1994
120 µW/cm2 A pathological change in the blood brain barrier (915 MHz) Salford, 1993

Studies by Increasing Specific Absorption Rate

SAR Reported Biological Effects References
0.000021 – .0021 W/Kg Changes in cell cycle and cell proliferation (960 MHz GSM cell phone signal) Kwee, 1997
0.0004 W/Kg Pulsed cell phone RF caused changes in blood-brain barrier that protects brain from outside harmful chemicals and toxins (915 MHz GSM cell phone) Salford, 1997
0.001 W/Kg EEG brain waves are altered when exposed to cell phone signal at 0.1 µW/cm2 Von KIitzing, 1995
0.0317 W/Kg Decrease in eating and drinking Ray & Behari, 1990
.005 to .05 W/Kg Calcium efflux Dutta et al, 1989
0.14 W/Kg Elevation of immune response at 100 µW/cm2 Elekes, 1996
0.13 – 1.4 W/Kg Lymphoma cancer rate is 2.4 times normal with two 1/2 hour exposures per day of cell phone exposure (pulsed digital mobile phone signal 900 MHz) Repacholi, 1997
0.26 W/Kg Harmful effects to the eyes/ certain drugs can sensitize eyes to RFR Kues, 1992
0.4 W/Kg Statistically significant increase in malignant tumors at 480 µW/cm2 Guy, 1984
0.58 – 0.75 W/Kg Biological effect on the development of brain tumors at 18% of standard (836 MHz TDMA digital cell phone signal) Adey, 1996
0.6 and 1.2 W/Kg DNA single and double strand breaks from RF exposure (2450 MHz) Lai, 1995
2.4 mW/Kg to 24 mW/Kg Digital cell phone (836 TDMA) at very low intensities cause DNA effects in human cells. DNA effects are direct DNA damage and the rate at which DNA is repaired. Is equal to about 800 µW/cm2 power density Phillips, 1998
2-3 W/Kg Cancer acceleration in skin and breast tumors at 50 – 75% of standard Szmigielski, 1982

Standards and Background Levels

SAR Standards
0.2 W/Kg IEEE standard for whole body SAR for general public (1/6 of an hour) IEEE
1.6 W/Kg FCC (IEEE) SAR limit over 1 gram of tissue (cell phone to ear) FCC, 1996
Power Density Standards
579µW/cm2 800-900 MHz Cell Phone Signal Standard ANSI/IEEE
1000µW/cm2 PCS STANDARD for public exposure (as of September 1, 1997) FCC, 1996
5000µW/cm2 PCS STANDARD for occupational exposure (as of September 11997) FCC, 1996
Background Levels
0.003 µW/cm2 Ambient background RF exposure in cities and suburbs in the 1990’s Mantiply, 1997
1 – 10 µW/cm2 Ambient RF exposure within 100-200 feet of cell/PCS antenna array (or roughly 0.2 to 0.5 mW/Kg SAR in the human body’) Sage, 1998, unpublished

Listing of Full Citations Refrenced Above

Study Description
Adey, WR., et. al., 1996. Brain tumor incidence in rats chronically exposed to digital cellular telephone fields in an initiation-promotion model. Bioelectromagnetics Society 18th Annual Meeting, Proceedings, Abstract A-7-3.
Belokrinitskiy, VS., 1982. “Destructive and reparative processes in hippocampus with long-term exposure to nonionizing radiation.” In U.S.S.R. Report, Effects of Nonionizing Microwave Radiation, No. 7, JPRS 81865, pp. 15-20.
Chiang, H., et. al., 1989. Health effects of environmental electromagnetic fields. Journal of Bioelectricity, 8: 127-131
Chou, CK., & Guy, AW., 1992. Long-term low level microwave irradiation of rats. Bioelectormagnetics 13:469-496
D’Inzeo, G., et. al., 1988. Microwave effects on acetycholine-induced channels in cultured chick myotubes. Bioelectromagnetics 9; 363-372.
Dolk, H., et. al., 1997. Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain. Am J Epidemiology 145(1) P 1-9 Jan 1997.
Dumanski, J.D., and Shandala, M.G., 1974 “The Biological Action and Hygenic Significance of Elecromagnetic Fields of Superhigh and Ultrahigh frequencies in Densely Populated Areas,” from Biological Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Warsaw 15-18 October, 1973, Polish Medical Publishers, Warsaw, 1974.
Dutta, SK., et. al., 1989. Radiofrequency radiation-induced calcium ion efflux enhancement from human and other neuroblastoma cells in culture. Bioelectromagnetics 10: 197-202.
Elekes, E., 1996. Effect on the immune system of mice exposed chronically to 50 Hz amplitude-modulated 2.45 GHz microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics 17:246-8.
Hocking, B., et. al., 1996. Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers Med J Aust 165(11-12) P. 601-5 Dec 2-16, 1996.
Joyner, K., et. al., 1996. Mobile telephones interfere with medical electrical equipment. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 1994 Mar. 17(1). P 23-7.
Kolodynski, AA., Kolodynska VV, 1996. Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda radio location station in Latvia. Sci Total Environ 1996;180:87-93
Kues, HA., 1992. Increased sensitivity of the non-human primate eye to radiation following opthalmic drug pretreatment. Bioelectromagnetics 13:379-93.
Kwee, 1997 The biological effects of microwave radiation. Abstract in Proceedings of the Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, Bologna, Italy, June 1997.
L. Salford (1993) “Experimental studies of brain tumor development during exposure to continuous and pulsed 915 MHz radio frequency radiation,” in Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, Vol. 30: pg. 313-318.
L. Von Klitzing “Low-Frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields influence EEG of man.” Physica Medica, Vol. 11, No. 2, pps 77-80, April-June 1995.
Lai, H., and Singh, NP., 1995. Acute low intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single strand breaks in rat brain cells, Bioelectromagnetics 1995;16:207-10.
Lai, H., & Singh, NP., 1996. Single and double strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 1996;69:513-21.
M.A. Navakatikian and L.A. Tomashevskaya “Phasic Behavioral and Endocrine Effects of Microwaves of Nonthermal Intensity,” by Carpenter DO and Ayrapetyan S, editors. Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields. Volume 1, published by Academic Press
Magras, IN., & Zenos, TD., 1997. RF Radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18:455-461.
Mann, K., et. al., 1996. Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep. Neuropsychobiology 1996;33:41-7.
Phillips, J., et. al., 1998. DNA damage in molt-4 lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency fields in vitro. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 45:103-110.
Ray, S., & Behari, J., 1990. Physiological changes in rats after exposure to low levels of microwaves. Radiat Res 123: 190-202
Repacholi, M., et. al., 1997. Lymphomas in Eµ-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields. Radiat Res. 1997; 147:31-40.
Salford, 1997 Blood brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields from a GSM wireless communication transmitter. Abstract in Proceedings of the Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, Bologna, Italy, June 1997.
Salford, LG., et. al., 1993. Permeability of the blood brain barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation;continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50 and 200 Hz. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg 1993;30:293-301.
Szmigielski, S., et. al., 1982. Accelerated development of spontaneous and benzpyrene-induced skin cancer in mice exposed to 2350 MHz microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 3: 179-192.
Szmigielski, S., et. al., 1982. Cancer morbidity in subjects occupationally exposed to high frequency (radiofrequency and microwave) electromagnetic radiation. Sci Total Environ 1996; 180:9-17
Veyret, B., et. al., 1991. “Antibody responses of mice exposed to low-power microwaves under combined, pulse and amplitude modulation,” Bioelectromagnetics 12: P 47-56.

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